run provides an interface similar to base::system() and base::system2(), but based on the process class. This allows some extra features, see below.

## Usage

run(
command = NULL,
args = character(),
error_on_status = TRUE,
wd = NULL,
echo_cmd = FALSE,
echo = FALSE,
spinner = FALSE,
timeout = Inf,
stdout = "|",
stderr = "|",
stdout_line_callback = NULL,
stdout_callback = NULL,
stderr_line_callback = NULL,
stderr_callback = NULL,
stderr_to_stdout = FALSE,
env = NULL,
windows_verbatim_args = FALSE,
windows_hide_window = FALSE,
encoding = "",
cleanup_tree = FALSE,
...
)

## Arguments

command

Character scalar, the command to run. If you are running .bat or .cmd files on Windows, make sure you read the 'Batch files' section in the process manual page.

args

Character vector, arguments to the command.

error_on_status

Whether to throw an error if the command returns with a non-zero status, or it is interrupted. The error classes are system_command_status_error and system_command_timeout_error, respectively, and both errors have class system_command_error as well. See also "Error conditions" below.

wd

Working directory of the process. If NULL, the current working directory is used.

echo_cmd

Whether to print the command to run to the screen.

echo

Whether to print the standard output and error to the screen. Note that the order of the standard output and error lines are not necessarily correct, as standard output is typically buffered. If the standard output and/or error is redirected to a file or they are ignored, then they also not echoed.

spinner

Whether to show a reassuring spinner while the process is running.

timeout

Timeout for the process, in seconds, or as a difftime object. If it is not finished before this, it will be killed.

stdout

What to do with the standard output. By default it is collected in the result, and you can also use the stdout_line_callback and stdout_callback arguments to pass callbacks for output. If it is the empty string (""), then the child process inherits the standard output stream of the R process. (If the main R process does not have a standard output stream, e.g. in RGui on Windows, then an error is thrown.) If it is NULL, then standard output is discarded. If it is a string other than "|" and "", then it is taken as a file name and the output is redirected to this file.

stderr

What to do with the standard error. By default it is collected in the result, and you can also use the stderr_line_callback and stderr_callback arguments to pass callbacks for output. If it is the empty string (""), then the child process inherits the standard error stream of the R process. (If the main R process does not have a standard error stream, e.g. in RGui on Windows, then an error is thrown.) If it is NULL, then standard error is discarded. If it is a string other than "|" and "", then it is taken as a file name and the standard error is redirected to this file.

stdout_line_callback

NULL, or a function to call for every line of the standard output. See stdout_callback and also more below.

stdout_callback

NULL, or a function to call for every chunk of the standard output. A chunk can be as small as a single character. At most one of stdout_line_callback and stdout_callback can be non-NULL.

stderr_line_callback

NULL, or a function to call for every line of the standard error. See stderr_callback and also more below.

stderr_callback

NULL, or a function to call for every chunk of the standard error. A chunk can be as small as a single character. At most one of stderr_line_callback and stderr_callback can be non-NULL.

stderr_to_stdout

Whether to redirect the standard error to the standard output. Specifying TRUE here will keep both in the standard output, correctly interleaved. However, it is not possible to deduce where pieces of the output were coming from. If this is TRUE, the standard error callbacks (if any) are never called.

env

Environment variables of the child process. If NULL, the parent's environment is inherited. On Windows, many programs cannot function correctly if some environment variables are not set, so we always set HOMEDRIVE, HOMEPATH, LOGONSERVER, PATH, SYSTEMDRIVE, SYSTEMROOT, TEMP, USERDOMAIN, USERNAME, USERPROFILE and WINDIR. To append new environment variables to the ones set in the current process, specify "current" in env, without a name, and the appended ones with names. The appended ones can overwrite the current ones.

windows_verbatim_args

Whether to omit the escaping of the command and the arguments on windows. Ignored on other platforms.

windows_hide_window

Whether to hide the window of the application on windows. Ignored on other platforms.

encoding

The encoding to assume for stdout and stderr. By default the encoding of the current locale is used. Note that processx always reencodes the output of both streams in UTF-8 currently.

cleanup_tree

Whether to clean up the child process tree after the process has finished.

...

## Error conditions

run() throws error condition objects if the process is interrupted, timeouts or fails (if error_on_status is TRUE):

• On interrupt, a condition with classes system_command_interrupt, interrupt, condition is signalled. This can be caught with tryCatch(..., interrupt = ...).

• On timeout, a condition with classes system_command_timeout_error, system_command_error, error, condition is thrown.

• On error (if error_on_status is TRUE), an error with classes system_command_status_error, system_command_error, error, condition is thrown.

All of these conditions have the fields:

• message: the error message,

• stderr: the standard error of the process, or the standard output of the process if stderr_to_stdout was TRUE.

• call: the captured call to run().

• echo: the value of the echo argument.

• stderr_to_stdout: the value of the stderr_to_stdout argument.

• status: the exit status for system_command_status_error errors.

## Examples

# This works on Unix systems
run("ls")
#> $status #> [1] 0 #> #>$stdout
#> [1] "Rplot001.png\nbase64_decode.html\ncurl_fds.html\ndefault_pty_options.html\nindex.html\npoll.html\nprocess.html\nprocess_initialize.html\nprocessx-package.html\nprocessx_connections.html\n"
#>
#> $stderr #> [1] "" #> #>$timeout
#> [1] FALSE
#>
system.time(run("sleep", "10", timeout = 1, error_on_status = FALSE))
#>    user  system elapsed
#>   0.000   0.012   0.439
system.time(
run(
"sh", c("-c", "for i in 1 2 3 4 5; do echo \$i; sleep 1; done"),
timeout = 2, error_on_status = FALSE
)
)
#>    user  system elapsed
#>   0.005   0.009   1.440
if (FALSE) {
# This works on Windows systems, if the ping command is available
run("ping", c("-n", "1", "127.0.0.1"))
run("ping", c("-n", "6", "127.0.0.1"), timeout = 1,
error_on_status = FALSE)
}